The present territory of Romania overlaps the European territory outlined by the shape of the Carpathian Mountains, bordered on the South by the Danube and on the East by the Black Sea. It covers an area of approx. 238,000 km ² with a variety of landforms: the Black Sea, the Danube Delta, plains, hills, depressions, plateaus and mountains.
Romania is a semi-presidential republic with its capital in Bucharest and a total of approx. 22,000,000 inhabitants (2011).
Statistics of 2011 state that the total area planted with vines for wine was 181, 011 hectares (except areas cultivated in gardens alive), out of which approx. 95,000 ha are noble vine-bearing and 85.000 ha hybrid producing vine-bearing. There are also 60,000 ha in resting prior replanting, so the total area allocated to vines in Romania is approx. 240,000 ha. The total amount of local wine producers was 4.05 million hectoliters, up to 23% compared to that of 2010. There are white grape varietals (84%) and red grape varietals (16%) of total vineyards. 42% of total vineyards (as area) are situated in the S-E of Romania. Each of the first five biggest Romanian wine producers has in between 2,000 and 3,000 ha.
The bottled wine market in Romania is estimated at around 500 million Euros in 2011. Wine of fresh grapes including fortified were exported both in and outside the EU countries and totaled 7,000 tons during the first half of 2012. Annual average consumption of wine per capita is approx. 25 l.
- History, climate and soil
Tribes of the Bronze Age in Romania are considered to belong to the Indo-European group of Thracians.
Strabo mentioned in his work “Geography” that “Getae have the same language with the Thracians and Dacians”. Named “Dacia” during the time of the Roman Empire, the territory was partially conquered by the Romans in 273 BC, leading to fusion of the two nations, so Daco-Romans are the ancestors of the Romanian people. After part of Dacia became a province of the Roman Empire, the elements of Roman culture and civilization (including the popular Latin language) were the base for the formation of the Romanian language.
Despite of the legends, Dacia was situated across the Black Sea from Persia (today’s Georgia and Iran) where wine seemed to have been born. It is obvious that the communication roads around the Black Sea brought the vine and wine culture to the territory that is now Romania at very early times.
Beginnings of viticulture in Romania dates back at least 4,000 years ago. Legend says that Dionysus, the God of wine was born in Thrace, the land that is Romania nowadays. The Roman coins that were discovered after the conquest of Dacia depict two children giving grapes to a woman as a symbol of one the main riches of “Dacia Felix” as the Romans used to call the country due to its wealth and fertile soil. The most popular holiday was dedicated to the Thracian God of wine in autumn, when grapes were harvested.
Romania has a temperate continental climate, as the territory extends about 5 ° of latitude around the 45° N so there might be important differences between South and North of the country in terms of climate. Average annual temperature is around 10°C, with an average max of around 23°C and an average min of -4°C. The landscape of the country has a crucial role in climate delimitation and floors. There are four seasons, the Carpathian Mountains forming a barrier separating harsh continental climates of East from the Western type and Adriatic type. Rainfall is moderate, ranging from 400 mm to 1000 mm, with an average of 640 mm. From July to end of September, there are very few rains, and that is during formation, maturation and harvest.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, Romanian viticulture was characterized by strong ties with France culminating with their aid after the ravages of Phylloxera attack. Working with French winegrowers aimed replanting of international varieties brought from France.
Very old Romanian varietals have been lost those times from up to the World War II:
White: Armas, Berbecel, Braghina, Basicata, Creata, Samoveanca, Ardeleanca, Cruciulita, Gordan, Plavaia, Ovis, Cabasma Alba, Cioinic, Carcioasa, Vulpe, Galbena Verde, Zemoasa, Frumoasa de Ghiroc, Majarca Alba, Rara Alba, Alb Mare, Alb Mic, AlbMarunt, Albisoara, Boereasca, Boscanata Alba, Cimighera, Coada Groasa, Diminichiu Alb, Firtigaia, Focsanenca,Plop ,Poama Mare, Poama Moale, Poama Boiereasca, Soimeaga, Alunica, Craita, Teisor.
Red: Negru Vartos, Negru Mare, Negru Romanesc, Negru Moale, Negru de Causani, Negru Batut, Negru Lung, Negru Boia, Cioinic, Parciu, Cabasma Neagra, Boscanata Neagra, Diminichiu Rosu, Epuroaica, Tiganca, Balaban Rosu, Leseasca Rosie.
Grapes from other countries have also been grown during 19th century and during the first half of the 20th century:
White: Bakator (Rujita), Ezerjo, Harslevehi, Honigler, Sylvan from Hungary or Austria; Clairette, Colombard, Folle Blanche, Gammay Blanc, Meslier, Pinot Blanc from France; Pedro Ximenes from Spain; Selection Carierre from Algeria.
Red: Alicante Bouchet, Aramon, Durif, Gammay Noir, Gammay Freau, Malbec, Mondeuse, Petit Bouschet, Cinsaut from France; Saperavi from Georgia.
The technology of the ‘70s was well implemented; therefore Romania became the 8th World wine producer country in the ‘80s. Unfortunately the aim was the quantity of the wine, disregarding the quality. Main export was to former USSR where it was a large request of white demi sweet or sweet wine. That is why this wine typology was defining Romania even around 1990, some reminiscence being still present. Between 1995-2005 major changes took place: noting the tremendous potential from Romania, foreign investments, mostly from Europe, redefined the Romanian wine industry into a modern one, by combining modern style wines while preserving classical style.
Romania is also producing sparkling wines using both traditional method and Charmat, special wines (fortified, oxidative, ice wine), and derivates (burned (distilled) wine= romagnac or wine raki, grappa style= pomace raki, vermouth (bitter)).
Last, but not least, Romania is one of richest countries in the World on mineral waters, both natural sparkling and still. There are around 2,000 mineral water natural sources identified mainly in the hills by the mountain area located from the center of Romania (Brasov town) to N-E (Dorna and Miercurea Ciuc towns). One of the few completely nitrites free waters is located in Romania. From mineral content there are waters from categories, table water and medical waters. Table waters have a neutral (or closed to neutral) taste and can be used with meals, as they do not alter the taste. Medical waters have a dominant mineral content of one or more minerals or mineral derivates (salts), and therefore have a dominant taste, not always very pleasant, but proved, even from the Romans period, to heal specific health problems.
- MAJOR GRAPE VARIETALS
There are both local and international varietals in Romania. Over the years, cepages or coupages made here got international recognition within major wine events. Thus, a not too strong national brand is affecting the exports. Most popular whites are White and Royal Feteasca, both reaching together about 20% of the white varietals. Merlot is representing approx. 40% of the reds. Varietals used in our days for wine are listed below:
|R O M A N I A N|
|FRANCUSA||Local ancient grape, known before Phyloxera period, it is used to produce fresh wines, with yellow-green color, higher acidity and light body. The wine is recommended to be consumed young and the most important production area is Cotnari. Seems to have Alsace ancestors (Weiss Frankisch- Francreich).|
|SARBA||It is a crossing in between Italian Riesling and Tamaioasa Romaneasca. It was obtained at Odobesti in late 60’s and registered in 1972. The name comes from the highest peak from the area called Culmea Sarbei. It is a vigorous varietal, resistant to frost but sensitive to dry climate, has medium drops, compact, greenish-yellow color. It is semi aromatic grape, turning into acidic wines with Muscat style flavor.|
|ZGHIHARA||Local post-philoxera grape varietal, which produces wines with medium high acidity, fresh and persistent aroma based on citrus hints and white flower, light body. Best growing area it’s in Husi, Vaslui and Averesti.|
|CRAMPOSIE||Monosexual. The name of this grape variety indicates pre-Roman roots, thus it has post-phyloxera definition. The present varietal was created in 197, in Dragasani, replacing older and altered varietals with a more genetically clean and stabile one, known as Cramposie Selectionata (bi-sexual). The wine has an intense greenish yellow color, glowing with golden reflections, fine aromas of citrus; ripe apples and pears taste is intense, refreshing and slightly unctuous, with excellent acidity and mineral support, medium body; excellent growing results in Dragasani wine area.|
|MUSTOASA||Original from Maderat city from Minis area, this local grape variety is very well appreciated for wine production known for their fresh and fruity taste, green color, fresh aromas, with little bit high acidity. Recommended for primary wines, for sparkling wines and local brandy production.|
|GALBENA||Local post phyloxera grape varietal, with huge potential as production per hectar, it is growing with excellent results in Odobesti wine area. The wine is light, fresh, with nice greenish color and light body, medium to high acidity, most of the times it is consumed as a table wine, but it is used very often for local brandy production.|
|BABEASCA GRI||Bud variety of Black Babeasca, it was obtained at Odobesti and registered in 1975. Very vigorous varietal, resistant to frost and dry conditions. Smoky-grey grapes. High acidic wines with low body. Suitable for sparkling within blendings.|
|IORDANA||Known as a local grape variety, it’s used to produce wines that are appreciated for their nice freshness and high acidity, light. It is used for different blending wines, for sparkling wines production and for local brandy production. Best area for this grape is in Transylvania, Sebes, Tarnave hills.|
|FETEASCA ALBA||Feteasca Alba produces cylindrical-conical grapes, small size, and small spherical grains; the skin is thin and greenish yellow. Wine keeps the taste of freshly picked ripe grapes, flavored like wild flowers and honey, rich in characteristic nuances: fruity, smooth, velvety and balance alcohol with acidity. It is a pre-roman Romanian grape varietal, and the most famous vineyards are Tarnave and Dealu Mare.|
|FETEASCA REGALA||White grape variety, producing grapes with irregular cylindrical berries, spherical, small and dense. It is a cross in between Grasa and Feteasca Alba and was made by the year of 1920, in the village of Danes, near Sighisoara, center of Transylvania, Tarnave Region (wine region 1). In 1928 the wine was presented at a Romanian horticultural exhibition where it was named Royal Feteasca, as Romania was a kingdom at that time. The wine has an intense greenish yellow color and shiny, discreet flavor with reminiscent of white forest flowers fragrance. The taste is light and fruity, great finesse and softness accents supported by good acidity and minerality. It is cultivated in most vineyards in Romania but has excellent results in Tarnave and Dealu Mare.|
|TAMAIOASA ROMANEASCA||Grapes of uniform size with medium-sized and spherical grains, densely arranged along the stalk, yellowish rusty shade and unique flavor found in wine. The wine is golden yellow when young and bright yellow after ageing and taste sensation is velvety, smooth and full-bodied. Flavors are complex with dominant notes of honey, acacia flowers and overripe grapes; after ageing, it can develop fine notes of almond; it is a well acclimatized wine in the vineyards of Moldavia and Wallachia Carpathian hills, but with origins close to Muscat Frontignan. Mainly used for dessert wines (from demi-sweet onwards).|
|GRASA||Medium sized grape, round or slightly oval berry, thin skin of greenish yellow with rust spots. The wine has a greenish yellow when young and yellow gold with purple reflexes when old. It is a wine with delicate aroma, attractive, with fine notes of toast, almonds and raisins and flavor characteristics resulting from noble mold. The wine can be vinified with very good results in semisweet or sweet manner and the best vineyards are Cotnari and Pietroasele, where it was cultivated from the 15th century.|
|I N T E R N A T I O N A L|
|CHARDONNAY||Not present before the year 2000, now widely used and fashionable, mainly dry versions.|
|SAUVIGNON BLANC||Used for long time mainly in area region 1, dry or even medium dry, now widely spread in dry versions.|
|ITALIAN RIESLING||Widely used in wine region 1, widely used in nowadays, dry or medium dry.|
|RHEIN RISLING||Not used before 2000, now attempts have been made and it gains popularity.|
|MUSCAT||Alsace varietals, used mainly in wine region 1, now spread all over the South of Romania. Usually with high residual sugar, now is very popular as dry version.|
|PINOT GRIS||Typical variety for the wine region 1.|
|GEWURTZ TRAMINER||Typical variety for the wine region 1.|
|ALIGOTE||Used mainly in the North of Romania, wine regions 1 and 2.|
|CHASELLAS DORE||Varietal used mainly within small, family owned and non-commercial vineyards.|
|FURMINT||Very occasional used in the North of Romania, grape of Hungarian origin.|
|SEMILLON||Recently introduced in Dealu Mare wine region.|
|R O M A N I A N|
|FETEASCA NEAGRA||Old Romanian variety arose from natural selection, with documentary attestation before phylloxera period, produces grapes and medium-sized cylindrical and spherical grains which are often placed in bunches. Wine color is intense ruby red, bright and fresh bouquet expresses notes of dry plumes and fine spices, filled with vanilla and chocolate tones. The taste is balanced, not too tannic, but strong and smooth with growth potential after a short maturation. Also, it has very good potential for blends with Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot. Area with the greatest potential is Dealu Mare, but it is also cultivated with great results in the west and south. Local origins in Pre-Roman period.|
|NOVAC||Local grape variety, obtained by crossing in between Romanian grape known as Negru Vartos, from South of Romania, and Saperavi from Georgia. The obtained wines based on this grape variety are elegant, with intense red color, black fruits aromas based on cherry and blueberry hints, round and smooth tannins, excellent aftertaste.|
|NEGRU DE DRAGASANI||Red grape variety, obtained by double crossing variety in between Romanian grape known as Negru Vartos, from South of Romania, and Saperavi. It is a wine with a deep ruby red color and its aromatic notes are fine and delicate, with blackberry and cherry hints. The taste is intense, not too tannic, with a fine texture and delicate flavor, after-taste long and well defined. Has potential for ageing and maturation at which acquires a strong texture and more complex aromatic notes. It is cultivated in the Dragasani vineyard with excellent results.|
|BABEASCA NEAGRA||Black Babeasca produces medium to large sized grapes, spherical and flattened berry, medium size, thin skin and dark red color. It is a wine with a rich history, with a light intense ruby red color, pleasant aromatic notes are dominated by fresh blueberries and blackberries; the taste is a light and refreshing one, keeping the flavor fresh grape harvest characteristics. Meet potential vineyards in southern Moldova and Northern Dobrogea, but also in Southern Oltenia.|
|BUSUIOACA DE BOHOTIN||Old Romanian grape variety with medium sized grains, spherical, dense, red color and flavor variety. Characteristic color of the wine is ruby red with shades of open cherry, with notes of raspberry smell nice and loose and blueberry flavor; is light and slightly oily with ripe grape characteristics. It is appreciated in either semisweet or sweet vinification manner, considered discreet but definite flavor of the variety in which it originates. The most famous variety is Busuioaca of Bohotin, with apparent origins close to Muscat Frontignan Rose.|
|I N T E R N A T I O N A L|
|PINOT NOIR||Very good results, as classical dry version, in wine regions 3 and 4. Used in wine region for a non-typical medium sweet version.|
|MERLOT||Very good results in wine region 3.|
|CABERNET SAUVIGNON||Very good results in wine region 3.|
|SHIRAZ||Recently brought in Romania, after 2000, as new world version, very good results in wine region 3.|
|CADARCA||Medium sized grape variety with medium sized grapes and black to blue skinned. The wine has a ruby red color open up to deep red, it is consistent, smooth and attractive, with pleasant aromas of fresh red berries; the delicate taste is harmonious and keeps its qualities for a long time. Are growing with very good results in Minis and Recas vineyards. Albanian origins.|
|MARIENFELDER||Met in the West side of Romania due to the historical influence of Austrian Empire during the Middle Ages.|
|FRANCUSA ALBASTRA||Commonly known as Blaufrankisch in Austria and Kekfrankos in Hungary.|
|SANGIOVESE||Italian varietal, very seldom used, but mainly in coupages.|
|BLAUERZWEIGELT||Met in the West side of Romania due to the historical influence of the Austrian Empire during the Middle Ages.|
|BURGUND||Burgundy origin, related to Pinot Noir, very seldom used, mainly as cepage.|
|CABERNET FRANC||Very rarely used in Dealu Mare wine region.|
|OPORTO ( PORTUGIESER)||Very rarely used in N-E of wine region 1, area of Lechinta.|
- WINE LAWS AND QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS
- The Romanian Quality Classification for wines consists in:
- table wines-are wines with minimum 8.5 % alcohol content, without a specified rule regarding the grapes or the region. This category represents 70 % from total national production.
- wines with geographical indication (IG). The harvest should be done when grapes offer minimum 179 gr of sugar/ liter; this wine is obtained from the grapes picked from the delimited area plantations. The alcohol level should be minimum 9,5% vol. for the wines obtained in the zone B and minimum 10,0% vol. for those in zone CI and CII. Alcohol should not be over 15% vol.
These wines are made from grapes produced by the vines from “Vitis vinifera” or a cross between “Vitis vinifera” and some other “Vitis” species. They are labeled under a grape variety name or a zone name, only if minimum 85 % of that grape variety or zone.
- wines with controlled origin (DOC)-are the equivalent of French AOC or Italian DOC. They are produced from grapes grown and used in vinification in a delimited area, according to the Agricultural Ministry Regulations for each DOC.30 % from total national production.
According to the maturation level of the grapes, these wines can be:
- a) DOC-CMD, obtained from the grapes picked at the complete maturity (minimum 187 gr sugar/liter at harvest);
- b) DOC-CT, obtained from the late harvested grapes (minimum 220 gr. sugar /liter);
- c) DOC-CIB, obtained from the grapes worked with “noble mold” or picked when raisined (minimum 240 gr. of sugar/liter).
- DOC and IG appelations:
– 32 controlled denomination of origin (DOC) for still wines: Târnave, Alba Iulia, Sebeş-Apold, Aiud, Lechinţa, Cotnari, Iaşi, Bohotin, Huşi, Iana, Dealu Bujorului, Nicoreşti, Panciu, Odobeşti, Coteşti, Cernăteşti-Podgoria, Dealu Mare, Pietroasa, Ştefăneşti, Sâmbureşti, Drăgăşani, Banu Mărăcine, Segarcea, Mehedinţi, Recaş, Banat, Miniş, Crişana, Murfatlar, Babadag, Sarica Niculiţel, Oltina.
– 10 controlled denomination of origin for sparkling wines: Târnave, Alba Iulia, Sebeş-Apold, Iaşi, Bucium, Huşi, Panciu, Dealu Mare, Şimleul Silvaniei, Murfatlar.
– 12 geographical indications (IG) for still wines: The Hills of Transilvania, The Hills of Moldova, The Hills of Vrancea, The Hills of Muntenia, The Hills of Oltenia, The vineyards of Caraş, The Vineyards of Timiş, The Hills of Zarand, The Hills of Crişana, The Hills of Sătmar, Colinele Dobrogei, The Terasses of Danube.
- Wine regions of Romania (EU standard, subdivisions, and main authorized grape varietals).
- Transylvania tableland (B) consists of 5 vineyards: Tarnave, Alba, Sebes-Apold, Aiud, Lechinta) with 17 wine producing centers and 2 of them independents (Dej and Geoagiu).It represents 6 % from the total production. Climate resemblances with wine producing centers such as Freiburg-Germany, Besancon, Macon-France. Central-European climate, moderate- continental, with medium hot summer, long and sunny autumn, medium cold winter. Humid-cold aspects and cold September nights (slow sugar accumulation, aromas and good acidity, offering freshness and fruity style to the white wines, having the grape variety specificity). Rainfall of 650 mm/year, average yearly temperature is ° 9 C, solar radiation index is 80 kcal/cm2. Soil variety has brown, brown-illuvionar clay and podzolite Here are produced superior quality white wines (Feteasca Alba, Feteasca Regala, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling Italian), aromatic wines, Muscat types (Muscat Ottonel) and wines used to make sparkling ones.
- The Hills of Moldova (C I) is the biggest region, it consists of 10 vineyards: Cotnari, Iasi ,Husi, Zeletin, Colinele Tutovei, The Hills of Bujor, Nicoresti , Ivesti, Covurlui, Panciu, Odobesti, Cotesti) with 34 wine producing centers and 8 independents. It represents 40 % of the national production. Climate resemblances with wine producing centers such as Valladolid-Spain and Viseu – Portugal. Temperate climate, more continental, medium dry, cold nights. Rainfall of 500 mm/year, average yearly temperature is 9.3°C, solar radiation index is 92 kcal/cm2.Soil variety has chernozem, reyi, antropics secondary carbonated (Cotnari), sandy (Ivesti).Here are produced table white and red wines, superior quality white wines (Riesling Italian, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris, Francusa, Feteasca Regala, Aligote, Zgihara, Sarba), natural sweet whites (Grasa de Cotnari, Cotnari, Galbena de Odobesti), and wine used for sparkling. Red superior quality ones are produce more on the islands, at Ivesti, Nicoresti Uricani, The Hills of Bujor (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Babeasca Neagra, Feteasca Neagra).
- The Hills of Muntenia and Oltenia (C II), is the second big wine region of Romania and consists in 8 vineyards: The Hills of Buzaului, Dealu Mare, Stefanesti-Arges, Simburesti, Dragasani, The Hills of Craiova, Severin, Plaiurile Drincei and 5 independent wine producing centers. It represents 39.5 % (30,0 % -Muntenia and 9.7% -Oltenia) from the national production. Climate resemblances with wine producing centers such as Rioja-Spain, Anadia-Portugal. Temperate-continental climate with central-European influences and Mediterranean (especially Oltenia).Rainfall of 500-700 mm/year, average yearly temperature of 10,5 ° C, solar radiation index is 92 kcal/cm2. Soil variety has cernozium, brown, brown-reddish, grey. Here there are produced quality white wines (Riesling Italian, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris, Feteasca Alba, Feteasca Regala, and Cramposie Selectionata) and superior reds (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, and Feteasca Neagra).
- Dealurile Banatului(C I): It represents 1 % from the national production. Climate resemblances (in the northern half, Moldova Noua and Tirol) with wine producing centers such as Agen, Bordeaux, Cognac –France and at Silagiu (under wet climate, temperate, cold nights, resemblance with wine producing centers such as Perugia (Italy) and Bratislava (Slovakia). Moderate- continental climate with sub-Mediterranean influences, offering soft winter, hot summer and long autumn. Rainfall of 650 mm/year, average yearly temperature of 10, 2° C, and solar radiation index is 92 kcal/cm2. Soil variety has terra-rosa type (on chalky soil), brown eumezobasics (on the slopes), brown clay-illuvionar and regosoils. Here are produced white and rosé table wines, and a small volume of quality whites (Riesling Italian, Sauvignon Blanc, Majarca Alba), and reds (Cadarca, Merlot, Pinot Noir).
- The Hills of Crisana and Maramures (C I): It consists of 4 vineyards (Minis-Maderat, Diosig, Mihai Valley and Silvania Valley), with 13 wine producing centers, 2 of them being independent. It gives 5 % from the national production. Climate resemblance with wine producing centers such as Perugia-Italy, Macon-France. It has a moderate continental climate, short and soft winter, early spring, hot and humid summer, long and warm autumn. Rainfall of 650 mm/year, average yearly temperature of 10.1 ° C, solar radiation index 86 kcal/cm2. Soil variety has brown, brown podzolic, brown eumezobasics, molisoilsi in South-West, with chernozems cambics and illuvionar clay. Here are produced superior quality white wines (Feteasca Alba, Riesling Italian, Furmint, Pinot Gris, Mustoasa de Maderat), and reds mostly in Minis (Cadarca).
- Dobrogea Hills (C II): situated in SE of Romania. It contains the vineyards of Istria-Babadag, Sarica-Niculitel and Murfatlar. It represents 7.5 % of the national production. Continental climate of steppe and sylvo-steppe, has strong hellio-thermic resources (solar radiation index over 92 kcal/cm2),low rainfall (420 mm/year, completed with irrigations), average yearly temperature of de 10.9 ° C. Soil variety has chernozem, pale, grey and rendzine chalky table grapes covers the consumption request for the seaside, superior white wines (Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Riesling, Pinot Gris, Feteasca alba/regala, Aligote, Muscat Ottonel) and reds (Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Burgund mare).
- The Terraces of Danube and other no favorable fields from south (C II): consists in the vineyards: Ostrov and Greaca, with temperate-continental climate, steppe style. It represents 1 % from the national production. Climate resemblance with whine producing centers such as Santiago – Chile , Medford – USA and Nuriootpa – Australia, and in Europe, Rioja-Spain, Anadia-Portugal, Montelimar-France. Rainfall is 500 mm/year , average yearly temperature of 11 ° C. Extreme temperatures require measures against frozen during winter or lack of humidity during summer-autumn. Soil variety has chernozem, cambic, clay-illuvionar, psamolosoils and pales. It is a specials area for table wines and raisins with some superior white wines (Feteasca Regala, Riesling Italian, Cramposie, and Donaris) and reds (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Burgund).
Other fields includes 3 vineyards (Calafat, Sadova-Corabia and Dacilor), with 8 wine centers producing centers and another 11 independents (Draganesti-Olt, Furculesti, Mavrodin, Urziceni, Suditi, Ulmu, Insuratei, Ruseti, Ciresu, Jirlau and Rimniceru). Climate resemblance with whine producing centers such as Ciudad Real-Spain and Pesa da Regua- Portugal. It is part of European Zone with steppe and sylvo-steppe climate, offering early spring, hot summer, long autumn and tough winter.
Average rainfall of 528 mm/year, average temperature of 10.8° C. Soil variety has aeolians and loessoid deposits, with psamosoils formed on it, and cambic chernozems, antropics. Soil texture is majority sandy or clay-sandy and high water permeability. Here are produced table white wines, rosé (Rosioara), superior quality white wines (Fetasca Alba, Riesling Italian, Aligote, Saint Emilion) and reds (Babeasca neagra, Sangiovese, Burgund Mare, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) in small volume.
OENOCLIMATIQUE ROMANIAN ZONES (CONTAINING WINE REGIONS):
A1: Transylvania tableland and the North of Moldova, with oenoclimatique capacity index of 4113- 4290. Here there are produced table white wines and superior white (DOC).
A2: Tg. Jiu, Stefanesti, Odobesti, Panciu, Husi, Bucium, Copu, Cotnari, Diosig, with oenoclimatique capacity index of 4318-4598. Table white and red, and white and red of superior quality (DOC).
A3: Minis, Dragasani, Dealu Mare, Nicoresti, Segarcea, Sarica Niculitel, Murfatlar, with oenoclimatique capacity index of 4606-4830. Here there are produced red wines and whites.
A4: Wine producing centers along Danube River, with oenoclimatique capacity index of 4770-5024.Producing table wines and special wines.